Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality

How will his presidency and the Republican Party change the economic inequality landscape?

This is a general discussion of any aspect of Donald Trump's presidency and the Republican Party's impact upon economic inequality. Keep the discussion civil and dignified while always being mindful of our principles of conduct (aka SITE RULES).

Posted on: » Fri Apr 26, 2019 2:56 pm #31

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Doctor A
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REFERENCING: Doctor A, Post #28, Posted Mar 5, 2019
There needs to be a new direction of thought and action away from organizational and individualistic centered ideology towards that of a unified front to stop economic inequality. Conservative's brain structure, policy and regulatory captur...

Re: Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality

Post by Doctor A » Fri Apr 26, 2019 2:56 pm

Here we have a clear example of how the 1% benefited from the great recession by capturing all of the income gains while the 99% captured nothing. In other words, the capitalistic cycle eventually benefited the wealthy and not the poor once again in the long run.

The 1 Percent Have Gotten All The Income Gains From The Recovery
By Bryce Covert, Jan 28, 2015 ... bee14aab1/

Between 2009 and 2012, according to updated data from Emmanuel Saez, overall income per family grew 6.9 percent. The gains weren't shared evenly, however. The top 1 percent saw their real income grow by 34.7 percent while the bottom 99 percent only saw a 0.8 percent gain, meaning that the 1 percent captured 91 percent of all real income.

Adjusting for inflation and excluding anything made from capital gains investments like stocks, however, shows that even that small gains for all but the richest disappears. According to Justin Wolfers, adjusted average income for the 1 percent without capital gains rose from $871,100 to $968,000 in that time period. For everyone else, average income actually fell from $44,000 to $43,900. Calculated this way, the 1 percent has captured all of the income gains.
While economic downturns like the financial crisis usually hurt the rich, that hit is temporary and income inequality roars back unless drastic regulation and tax policy changes are implemented, he writes.
From my previous post,
Until we can correct the heretofore mentioned imbalances caused by capitalism, and create a new direction of thought and action, the system will continue to be rigged, and we will continue to be crushed under the boots of the elite. The collapse of capitalism is usually caused by the wealthy creating risky laws to enhance their wealth and is the mindset as to how they operate. Whereas they may get killed in the market, many of us less fortunate literally get killed by economic collapse. Until the imbalance is rectified, it will be the same business as usual in a repetitive cycle of upward fortune followed by downward disasters. Although after each and every disaster new laws are put into place to contain the greed of the wealthy that created the disaster to begin with, these laws are quickly diluted down or repealed all together to favor the wealthy once again. What else can we expect from a legal corporate system that has a primary emphasis on fiduciary laws, that is to say, laws that mandate corporations make money for their stock holders as the basic reason for their very existence.
Once again we have been kicked in the teeth by these jack booted thugs. The non-wealthy will continue to be abused in these cyclic capitalistic debacles with the devastation lasting until we take matters into our own hands and finally do something about it. To think otherwise is tantamount to admitting you had a frontal lobotomy.
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Posted on: » Sun May 19, 2019 9:41 am #32

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Re: Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality

Post by Jessica » Sun May 19, 2019 9:41 am

The battle for the control of our brains' is heating up with Elon Musk's new company called Neuralink. It is hoped this company will provide a direct link interface between our wet brain and that of our computers' and other devices. Elon Musk is doing this project as a counter balance to the possibility of run away artificial intelligence. In this scenario, humans will be left behind as computers outpace our intellect in the dawning technological singularity.

From: Innovation Engineering
Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer

Neuralink, Elon Musk's neurotechnology company, is building a tool to link human brains with computers without a physical connection.
By Susan Fourtan, September, 02nd 2018 ... a-computer

Neuralink, the brain-computer interface and neuroprosthetics company started by Elon Musk and others in 2016 is developing ultra high bandwidth brain-machine interfaces to connect humans and computers. Elon Musk is also the CEO of the company.

The neurotechnology company headquartered in San Francisco, California is expected to develop implantable brain-computer interfaces (BCIs).

Neuralink aims to make devices that intially would treat serious brain disease and brain damage that was caused by a stroke in the short-term. In the long-term, the company's goal is to develop the technology for human enhacement.
Neural Lace is a brain-computer interface technology that could allow human brains to compete with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Currently, Elon Musk is funding research toward the development of Neural Lace technology, this is the emerging technology that could link human brains with computers without the need of a physical connection.

This would be possible by implanting tiny electrodes into the brain. The result would be the enhancement of memory and cognitive powers by effectively merging humans and Artificial Intelligence.

Elon Musk, who runs several successful companies, including Tesla and SpaceX, has outlined his fears in several opportunities saying that the rapid advancement in Artificial Intelligence means that humans will either have to merge with Artificial Intelligence at some point in the future or become irrelevant. When he is asked about why he founded Neuralink he responds saying that the "existential risk is too high not to."

Neuralink is a mix of futuristic science and brain surgery. Linking the human brain directly to computers and other electronic devices via cybernetic implants allows the mind to interface with gadgets and programs, and this is what Neuralink is going to be all about.

According to Elon Musk, brain-to-machine (B2M) interfaces are an important part of humanity's future. It is well known that Elon Musk and others are concerned about the impact of Artificial Intelligence on the world and the future of humanity as we know it. By finding a way to increase humans' intelligence to equal that of the Artificial Intelligence programs of the future, or superintelligences.

"We are, all of us, already cyborgs," Elon Musk said at the Beneficial Artificial Intelligence conference. "You have a machine extension of yourself in the form of your phone and your computer and all your applications . . . by far you have more power, more capability than the President of the United States had 30 years ago," Musk said.
Neuralink: Neural Lace explained

According to Elon Musk, without the creation of the Neural Lace technology, humans will be unable to keep pace with the rapid advances in Artificial Intelligence. He says that there is a good chance that humans may become the intellectual equivalent of the house cat.

As an immediate application, Neural Lace could potentially help patients suffering from brain injuries and certain illnesses. However, the utimate goal and mission of Neuralink are to successfully merge the human brain with machine, fusing human intelligence with Artificial Intelligence. As a result, this is expected to bring humanity up to a higher level of cognitive reasoning.

Neural Lace: How it works

At some point, Neural Lace is going to enable humans to upload and download information directly from a computer. Just in a similar way how Neo from the Matrix does in order to learn new skills and acquire new information.

In order to insert Neural Lace, a tiny needle containing the rolled up mesh is placed inside the skull. The mesh is then injected and unveiled upon injection, encompassing the brain.

The Neural Lace integrates itself with the human brain. It creates a perfect symbiosis between human and machine. This technology could be the catalyst for the technological Singularity.

The following videos on this Neuralink space are helpful to understand the nature of this new technology:

Here is the most recent link, ... evice.html
In the previous referenced post, Doctor A presents aspects of the future battle for brain control which is encapsulated in his following statements,
From Doctor A's post #6 we have,

2) Let there be no doubt, the single most important aspect we are really battling for here is to control the future,our future,for the good of the whole. Will we control it or let the wealthy elite control our destiny? Make no mistake; what happens here will determine the outcome of humanity. Whoever controls the Singularity will control the future;will it be us or them?

Regarding the words, "Whoever controls the Singularity will control the future", the word control implies some form of active intent. One only has to look at the modern day corporate players of Apple, Google, Amazon, Microsoft, and other key players at the top of the corporate pyramid to see the level of active control they employ to promote their interests. Their intent is for world domination at least realistically in their their respective fields to control the future. They actively appropriate large amounts of capital and talent to ensure their future technological dominance. A quest to maximize profits and continue growth marches lockstep with a corporate fiduciary duty regarding such matters for their shareholders. This is an active intent to control the future.

Under 1-A Economic Inequality: The Outrage! TODAY'S CONCERNS, from the topic, New Age Slavery, post #20, Doctor A states,

We are at war; it is a war between competing brain structures. What we are witnessing is the opening salvo of class warfare on a world wide scale. Few dare to call it what really is in an attempt to keep the cauldron from boiling over. Nevertheless, the carnage is just starting and will continue.

He also says,

But only one side will win. Let us pray it is us and not just a handful of craven elites with blood stained hands and brain structures bent on controlling the world in an attempt to satisfy their inner greed; it is a greed that can never be satisfied. The very future of humanity depends upon us winning. Losing would surely spell death to each of us as with every successive year more and more automation and robotics will relegate us to the dust bin of history. It is a history where we are no longer needed. Eventually, a cost to benefit ratio derived from an algorithm will lead someone down that slippery slope to ask the question, "Why not just kill them all?" This is the future we are fighting against and the fight must start now if we are to have any chance of winning.

Finally, under Donald Trump and the Republican Party: Anything Goes!,from the topic, Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality, we have Doctor A's post #9 where he explains,

I suspect the future research proposed by Dr. Kaplan will show a similar level of intransience and resistance to change political ideology when he tests the conservative group. If this proves to be the case, then I would still choose my liberal brain structure over that of a conservative's. That being said, an individual may not have a choice in tomorrow's world. So, here is the crux of the matter; who will get to choose the structure of the fetal brain wiring with its genetic engineering for future generations; who will choose our adult brain structures as more and more brain prosthetics become available as we slip into old age?

I suggest the dominant political power, which is currently conservative, Republican, and supported by Plutocrats will have sway over these decisions. You, as a member of the 99%, will have little choice in the matter. Just like tax rates, guns, and reproductive rights, certain future brain structures will be mandated. Let us remember the golden rule? No, not that one, rather the one that states, "those with the gold make the rules." Those of the wealthy elite will use their plutocratic positions steeped in conservative brain structures to make it so legally and otherwise. Given the same choice, wouldn't you too base the future upon an image of humanity in the image of your own brain structured world view?
Doctor A also sums up how those with a conservative brain structure will fight to maintain control of the new technology when he states in the same thread on this website from post #28,
There needs to be a new direction of thought and action away from organizational and individualistic centered ideology towards that of a unified front to stop economic inequality. Conservative's brain structure, policy and regulatory capture by the rich, money in politics, flaws in capitalism, and movement nearing the rise of a technological singularity will all play a role in crushing any hope for humanity unless this new direction is achieved. Until that time, it will be business as usual with the last two human generations witnessing ever increasing economic inequality in the USA being proof positive that the old way of thinking is outdated and outright ineffective. What follows is a compilation of four basic mechanisms taken from the FirstRateCrowd website which are instrumental in enslaving our thoughts and actions unless we change.
Doctor A presents four basic power levers utilized by the rich to retain their power. Although these are too lengthy to present here, the levers include:
1) Conservative minded brain structure
2) Policy or regulatory capture along with money in politics
3) Flaws in capitalism, which disproportionately impacts the poor
4)The rise of the technological singularity

He then states,
The above four powerful mechanisms, although not exhaustive in scope and breadth as there are many more mechanisms, are too much for us to surmount and we will be conquered and eventually destroyed by the elite's economic inequality unless we begin to think and act differently.
We are our own worst enemy when we allow these antiquated mechanisms to control our lives. The old rules of activism must be supplanted with a new mindset. The clock is ticking. Wake up and embrace a more advanced activism; rise up to the power of FirstRateCrowd's EIRA.
If this junction between humans and computers can be crated as Elon Musk describes, it will have a profound impact upon the development of the technological singularity. To a certain extent, we will be able to judge the development of the singularity by watching what is happening in this space both technologically and legally. As always, the levers of power Doctor A describes are skewed in favor of the wealthy elite. They will be the ones with the financial resources not only to do the research and bring products into development, but they will also be the ones who will tip the legal scales in their favor. Even though Elon Musk is doing this project as a counter balance to the possibility of run away artificial intelligence, he and other wealthy elite will still control it's outcome. For all intents and purposes, the 99% will remain virtually voiceless in the arenas that matter.
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Posted on: » Sat May 25, 2019 5:57 pm #33

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REFERENCING: Jessica, Post #32, Posted May 19, 2019
The battle for the control of our brains' is heating up with Elon Musk's new company called Neuralink. It is hoped this company will provide a direct link interface between our wet brain and that of our computers' and other devices. Elon Mu...

Re: Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality

Post by Jessica » Sat May 25, 2019 5:57 pm

To quote the head of AI at Singularity University, Neil Jacobstein, “It’s not artificial intelligence I’m worried about, it’s human stupidity.”

The hacking and hijacking of a brain-computer interface, such as Elon Musk's Neuralink, has the potential to produce devastating and even life threatening consequences. Even if a computer code is developed which is not penetrable to hacking by today's standards, an exponentially advancing AI in the future may be able to beat any form of prophylaxis. The following articles indicate hacking is a real concern for Neuralink with similar technologies being susceptible to non-origination control.

Experts: Artificial Intelligence Could Hijack Brain-Computer Interfaces
Can we prevent AI from hacking into the human brain?, by Dom Galeon, November 20th 2017 ... interfaces
Ever since Tesla CEO and founder Elon Musk announced his plans to develop a brain-computer interface (BCI) through his Neuralink startup, BCI technologies have received more attention. Musk, however, wasn't the first to propose the possibility of enhancing human capabilities through brain-computer interfacing. A number of other startups are working on a similar goal, including Braintree founder Bryan Johnson with Kernel. Even the U.S. Defense Department's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is working on one.

Now, according to a collaboration of 27 experts,neuroscientists, neurotechnologists, clinicians, ethicists and machine-intelligence engineers,calling themselves the Morningside Group, BCIs present a unique and rather disturbing conundrum in the realm of artificial intelligence (AI). Essentially designed to hack the brain, BCIs themselves run the risk of being hacked by AI.

Such advances could revolutionize the treatment of many conditions, from brain injury and paralysis to epilepsy and schizophrenia, and transform human experience for the better, the experts wrote in a comment piece in the journal Nature. But the technology could also exacerbate social inequalities and offer corporations, hackers, governments or anyone else new ways to exploit and manipulate people. And it could profoundly alter some core human characteristics: private mental life, individual agency and an understanding of individuals as entities bound by their bodies.

Machine Learning
How Brain-Computer Interfaces Could Expose Us to Hacking and Manipulation
25 Dec 2017 12:30pm, by Kimberley Mok ... ipulation/
In particular, they are pointing to upcoming developments in brain-computer interfaces being spearheaded by companies like Neuralink and Kernel, creating wireless devices which will directly link humans to powerful computational systems, which have to ability to not only "read" human brain activity, but also "write" neural data into the brain. According to the group, they foresee technological changes happening much faster than governments or societies can adapt, leading to an uncharted and potentially perilous territory where users and their data might not only be exploited for financial gain but even lose their sense of self.

How Hackers Could Get Inside Your Head With Brain MalwareBrain-computer interfaces offer new applications for our brain signalsand a new vector for security and privacy violations.
From: Motherboard, by Victoria Turk, Aug 3 2016 ... in-malware
Hackers have spyware in your mind. You're minding your business, playing a game or scrolling through social media, and all the while they're gathering your most private information direct from your brain signals. Your likes and dislikes. Your political preferences. Your sexuality. Your PIN.

It's a futuristic scenario, but not that futuristic. The idea of securing our thoughts is a real concern with the introduction of brain-computer interfaces devices that are controlled by brain signals such as EEG (electroencephalography), and which are already used in medical scenarios and, increasingly, in non-medical applications such as gaming.
Mind-Hunting: Could Your Brain Be a Target For Hackers

New technology could let hackers inside your head with dangerous "brain malware".
By Zachary Tomlinson, November, 20th 2018 ... or-hackers
Imagine the scenario where you are minding your business someday in the near-future as you scroll through social media using only the power of your thoughts. Apple's new phone contains a brain-computer interface that lets you control every feature with your mind,a miracle of science when it was introduced, but now you're used to it.

But imagine if you will, what hacking a device with that kind of technology could mean. While you browse the web or do your work, hackers could be using spyware on your mind-- gathering your most private information directly from your brain signals. Your likes and dislikes. Your political preferences. Your sexuality. Your PIN.

The idea frankly is not all that far-fetched. The need to secure our very thoughts is quickly becoming a reality in a world where brain-computer interface machines (such as EEGs) are becoming more prevalent both in medical scenarios and in other applications like personal computing and even gaming. The simple fact is, if we don't address this problem quickly, it will inevitably be too late.
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Posted on: » Sun May 26, 2019 11:30 am #34

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REFERENCING: Jessica, Post #33, Posted May 26, 2019
To quote the head of AI at Singularity University, Neil Jacobstein, “It’s not artificial intelligence I’m worried about, it’s human stupidity.”

The hacking and hijacking of a brain-computer interface, such as Elon Musk's ...

Re: Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality

Post by Doctor A » Sun May 26, 2019 11:30 am

Jessica's previous post is specific to hacking and hijacking brain-computer interfaces. In a different thread I presented a more generalized and encompassing view regarding the coming of Neurological And Technological Brain Adaptions. This is from my post #6 under the major category of Economic Inequality-The Singularity, under the subheading of, Pitchforks And Torches Will No Longer Be Able To Stop The 1%. Here I pointed out many frightening ethical, moral, and legal issues of this dawning field. This is germane to Jessica's discussion and provides a larger scope of issues related to her post.
In a neurotechnology future, human-rights laws will need to be revisited
April 28, 2017

New forms of brainwashing include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to neuromodulate the brain regions responsible for social prejudice and political and religious beliefs, say researchers. (credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine)

New human rights laws to prepare for rapid current advances in neurotechnology that may put freedom of mind at risk have been proposed in the open access journal Life Sciences, Society and Policy.

Four new human rights laws could emerge in the near future to protect against exploitation and loss of privacy, the authors of the study suggest: The right to cognitive liberty, the right to mental privacy, the right to mental integrity, and the right to psychological continuity.

Advances in neural engineering, brain imaging, and neurotechnology put freedom of the mind at risk, says Marcello Ienca, lead author and PhD student at the Institute for Biomedical Ethics at the University of Basel. Our proposed laws would give people the right to refuse coercive and invasive neurotechnology, protect the privacy of data collected by neurotechnology, and protect the physical and psychological aspects of the mind from damage by the misuse of neurotechnology.

Potential misuses
Sophisticated brain imaging and the development of brain-computer interfaces have moved away from a clinical setting into the consumer domain. There's a risk that the technology could be misused and create unprecedented threats to personal freedom. For example:
Uses in criminal court as a tool for assessing criminal responsibility or even the risk of re-offending.*
Consumer companies using brain imaging for neuromarketing to understand consumer behavior and elicit desired responses from customers.
Brain decoders that can turn a person's brain imaging data into images, text or sound.**
Hacking, allowing a third-party to eavesdrop on someone's mind.***

International human rights laws currently make no specific mention of neuroscience. But as with the genetic revolution, the on-going neurorevolution will require consideration of human-rights laws and even the creation of new ones, the authors suggest.

*A possibly game-changing use of neurotechnology in the legal field has been illustrated by Aharoni et al. (2013). In this study, researchers followed a group of 96 male prisoners at prison release. Using fMRI, prisoners brains were scanned during the performance of computer tasks in which they had to make quick decisions and inhibit impulsive reactions. The researchers followed the ex-convicts for 4 years to see how they behaved. The study results indicate that those individuals showing low activity in a brain region associated with decision-making and action (the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, ACC) are more likely to commit crimes again within 4 years of release (Aharoni et al. 2013). According to the study, the risk of recidivism is more than double in individuals showing low activity in that region of the brain than in individuals with high activity in that region. Their results suggest a potential neurocognitive biomarker for persistent antisocial behavior. In other words, brain scans can theoretically help determine whether certain convicted persons are at an increased risk of reoffending if released. Marcello Ienca and Roberto Andorno/Life Sciences, Society and Policy

** NASA and Jaguar are jointly developing a technology called Mind Sense, which will measure brainwaves to monitor the driver's concentration in the car (Biondi and Skrypchuk 2017). If brain activity indicates poor concentration, then the steering wheel or pedals could vibrate to raise the driver's awareness of the danger. This technology can contribute to reduce the number of accidents caused by drivers who are stressed or distracted. However, it also opens theoretically the possibility for third parties to use brain decoders to eavesdropping on people's states of mind. Marcello Ienca and Roberto Andorno/Life Sciences, Society and Policy

*** Criminally motivated actors could selectively erase memories from their victims brains to prevent being identified by them later on or simply to cause them harm. On the long term-scenario, they could be used by surveillance and security agencies with the purpose of selectively erasing dangerous, inconvenient from people's brain as portrayed in the movie Men in Black with the so-called neuralyzer. Marcello Ienca and Roberto Andorno/Life Sciences, Society and Policy
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Posted on: » Fri Jun 28, 2019 5:11 pm #35

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Re: Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality

Post by Sterling Volunteer » Fri Jun 28, 2019 5:11 pm

The hacking and brainjacking of our cranial cells is becoming more and more ubiquitous in the modern world. We need to be aware of this increasing trend for the control of our minds. Here is an interesting article in its entirety presenting a broad overview of the dangers we currently face. Realistically these are known examples; most governmental agencies around the world are doing undisclosed research in this sector of mind control while keeping their secrets out of the public's view.

Neural Implant Tech Raises the Specter of Brainjacking
By Edd Gent -Jun 13, 2017 ... injacking/

The human mind is already pretty open to manipulation—just ask anyone who works in advertising. But neural implant technology could potentially open up a direct digital link to our innermost thoughts that could be exploited by hackers.

In recent months, companies like Elon Musk’s Neuralink, Kernel, and Facebook have unveiled plans to create devices that will provide a two-way interface between human brains and machines.

While these devices could undoubtedly bring many benefits, they would be networked to computers and therefore essentially part of the Internet of Things. That should immediately set off alarm bells for anyone paying attention to cybersecurity news.

There have been repeated warnings in recent years about the huge number of vulnerabilities in “smart” devices designed by consumer goods companies with little experience of or consideration for cybersecurity.

One would expect that the added sensitivity of a device set to be integrated into people’s bodies would warrant more caution. But it has already been demonstrated that it is possible to hack medical implants to harm patients, and there seems to be no reason the same wouldn’t be true of neural implants.

In a paper in World Neurosurgery last year, Oxford PhD student Laurie Pycroft warned about the possibility of ‘brainjacking’—hackers exerting unauthorized control of brain implants.

Deep brain stimulation implants are already being used to treat diseases like Parkinson’s and chronic pain, but he warned that hackers could gain control of the device and alter stimulation settings to cause pain or inhibit movement.

Even with these comparatively simple devices, a determined and technically competent attacker could carry out more advanced attacks that could alter the victim’s behavior in crude ways, Pycroft said.

Future neural implants designed from the bottom up to interface with our cognitive processes may make far more nuanced and sophisticated hacks possible. Earlier this month it was shown that a neural headset could be used to guess someone’s PIN. How much more intimate would the access be if we were talking about an invasive neural implant like the one Elon Musk has proposed?

While a targeted attack on a neural implant designed to manipulate someone’s behavior is unlikely to be worth the effort for most hackers, a bigger threat may be dumb malware that spreads to thousands of devices. Spyware could be used to access highly sensitive personal information, and a neural implant locked by ransomware is not as easy to replace as a laptop.

Perhaps, though, it’s not hackers we should be worrying about. Edward Snowden’s revelations about the NSA’s PRISM surveillance program in 2013 demonstrated wide-ranging collusion between the security services and technology companies to intercept the supposedly secure communications of innocent citizens.

It’s hard to imagine the spooks would pass up the opportunity to do the same with neural implants, and once that threshold has been crossed, it would likely be a short leap to taking advantage of the two-way nature of these future devices to subtly influence people’s behavior.

Even if you trust your government not to abuse these capabilities, the leak of a massive cache of hacking tools stockpiled by the NSA suggests they may not be the only ones with access.
And it’s hard to imagine that the tech companies building these devices don’t know where the back doors are. Facebook, one of the companies developing neural technology, has already been caught carrying out questionable psychological experiments that altered users’ emotions without their permission.

However, this example also highlights that it may not be necessary for us to install neural implants to make our brains susceptible to hacking. The media—be that newspapers, advertisers or Hollywood—have long been accused of manipulating the way we think.

With the rise of social media there are now a host of new tools for those looking to influence the zeitgeist: fake news websites, swarms of Twitter bots, and targeted advertising based on psychological profiles drawn from our internet behavior.

One researcher recently showed they could read neural responses to subliminal images embedded in a game. The information is crude, but they said it could be scaled up to mind-reading level capabilities if combined with other technology, like VR or wearable devices.

So, whether it’s through neural implants or clever social engineering, it seems technology is already challenging the sanctity of our mental processes. Just last month I reported on calls from neuroethicists to introduce new human rights designed to protect our mental privacy.

While new rights would be welcome, more pressing is the need to ensure that cybersecurity is built into future neural devices from the outset, and from the bottom up.
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Posted on: » Thu Aug 08, 2019 9:06 pm #36

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REFERENCING: Sterling Volunteer, Post #35, Posted Jun 29, 2019
The hacking and brainjacking of our cranial cells is becoming more and more ubiquitous in the modern world. We need to be aware of this increasing trend for the control of our minds. Here is an interesting article in its entirety presenting...

Re: Brain Structure Drives The Consequent Effects Of Economic Inequality

Post by MaureenCarter » Thu Aug 08, 2019 9:06 pm

Without question, Sterling's referencing post #35 speaks the truth when he cites,
most governmental agencies around the world are doing undisclosed research in this sector of mind control while keeping their secrets out of the public's view. The following looks at the direction some of the research currently underway is taking that the public has access to seeing.
DARPA’s New Project Is Investing Millions in Brain-Machine Interface Tech
By Shelly Fan - Jun 05, 2019 ... face-tech/

When Elon Musk and DARPA both hop aboard the cyborg hypetrain, you know brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are about to achieve the impossible.

BMIs, already the stuff of science fiction, facilitate crosstalk between biological wetware with external computers, turning human users into literal cyborgs. Yet mind-controlled robotic arms, microelectrode “nerve patches”, or “memory Band-Aids” are still purely experimental medical treatments for those with nervous system impairments.

With the Next-Generation Nonsurgical Neurotechnology (N3) program, DARPA is looking to expand BMIs to the military. This month, the project tapped six academic teams to engineer radically different BMIs to hook up machines to the brains of able-bodied soldiers. The goal is to ditch surgery altogether—while minimizing any biological interventions—to link up brain and machine.

Rather than microelectrodes, which are currently surgically inserted into the brain to hijack neural communication, the project is looking to acoustic signals, electromagnetic waves, nanotechnology, genetically-enhanced neurons, and infrared beams for their next-gen BMIs.

It’s a radical departure from current protocol, with potentially thrilling—or devastating—impact. Wireless BMIs could dramatically boost bodily functions of veterans with neural damage or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or allow a single soldier to control swarms of AI-enabled drones with his or her mind. Or, similar to the Black Mirror episode Men Against Fire, it could cloud the perception of soldiers, distancing them from the emotional guilt of warfare.

The four-year N3 program focuses on two main aspects: noninvasive and “minutely” invasive neural interfaces to both read and write into the brain.

Because noninvasive technologies sit on the scalp, their sensors and stimulators will likely measure entire networks of neurons, such as those controlling movement. These systems could then allow soldiers to remotely pilot robots in the field—drones, rescue bots, or carriers like Boston Dynamics’ BigDog. The system could even boost multitasking prowess—mind-controlling multiple weapons at once—similar to how able-bodied humans can operate a third robotic arm in addition to their own two.

In contrast, minutely invasive technologies allow scientists to deliver nanotransducers without surgery: for example, an injection of a virus carrying light-sensitive sensors, or other chemical, biotech, or self-assembled nanobots that can reach individual neurons and control their activity independently without damaging sensitive tissue. The proposed use for these technologies isn’t yet well-specified, but as animal experiments have shown, controlling the activity of single neurons at multiple points is sufficient to program artificial memories of fear, desire, and experiences directly into the brain.

“A neural interface that enables fast, effective, and intuitive hands-free interaction with military systems by able-bodied warfighters is the ultimate program goal,” DARPA wrote in its funding brief, released early last year.

The only technologies that will be considered must have a viable path toward eventual use in healthy human subjects.

DARPA’s stated goal is to hook up at least 16 sites in the brain with the BMI, with a lag of less than 50 milliseconds—on the scale of average human visual perception. That’s crazy high resolution for devices sitting outside the brain, both in space and time. Brain tissue, blood vessels, and the scalp and skull are all barriers that scatter and dissipate neural signals. All six teams will need to figure out the least computationally-intensive ways to fish out relevant brain signals from background noise, and triangulate them to the appropriate brain region to decipher intent.

“DARPA is preparing for a future in which a combination of unmanned systems, AI, and cyber operations may cause conflicts to play out on timelines that are too short for humans to effectively manage with current technology alone,” said Al Emondi, the N3 program manager.

The use of BCIs for the military is echoed in the following articles:
US military thinks soldiers are ready to control machines with their minds
by TRISTAN GREENE ... eir-minds/

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a think tank for the Pentagon, hosted a three day symposium in celebration of its 60th anniversary this week. Highlights from the event included discussion of some of the most astounding projects the agency is currently working on. And of those, one in particular caught our eye: The N3, or Next Generation Nonsurgical Neurotechnology, program.

We love DARPA because its job is to come up with wacky futuristic ideas and then see which ones the brass wants to pursue. And the N3 program is everything you hope for in a (not at all) secret military research project.

The N3 program seeks to build a brain computer interface (BCI) that doesn’t require surgery or any invasive procedures. Basically they want to come up with a way to take existing external BCIs and make them fit for combat duty. Current BCI technology, mostly designed to assist the disabled, is entirely unsuited for field deployment.
The US Military Is Working on Tech That Could Turn Soldiers Into Cyborgs
PETER DOCKRILL 22 JAN 2016 ... ital-world

The US military has announced it will be developing an implantable neural interface that can bridge the divide between the human mind and computers.

The Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) says that the interface, which it envisions as a bio-compatible device measuring no larger than 1 cubic centimetre, would act as a translator that converts between the "electrochemical language used by neurons in the brain and the ones and zeros that constitute the language of information technology".

The ambitious scheme, called the Neural Engineering System Design (NESD) program, seeks to boost the abilities of existing brain interfaces that can link mind and machine. Current devices consist of about 100 channels, but DARPA intends to develop a system that can communicate with up to 1 million neurons at a time.

"Today's best brain-computer interface systems are like two supercomputers trying to talk to each other using an old 300-baud modem," said project manager Phillip Alvelda. "Imagine what will become possible when we upgrade our tools to really open the channel between the human brain and modern electronics."
According to DARPA, the device could provide a foundation for new health therapies, digitally compensating for "deficits in sight or hearing by feeding digital auditory or visual information into the brain at a resolution and experiential quality far higher than is possible with current technology".

In order to achieve its goal, DARPA says new advancements will need to be made across several fields including neuroscience, synthetic biology, and low-power electronics. There's also the software side of the equation, with new neuro-computation techniques required that can accurately transcode and compress high-definition sensory information between digital hardware and the brain on the fly, and all without significant losses in fidelity.

To make this possible, DARPA is reaching out to researchers and companies around the world for their assistance in creating these kinds of technologies

Here is another example of some of the work being done:

Business Wire
Battelle-Led Team Wins DARPA Award to Develop Injectable, Bi-Directional Brain Computer Interface
May 20, 2019 ... 00201.html

Battelle has for years successfully demonstrated brain-computer interface (BCI) projects—just look at NeuroLife®, which has enabled a quadriplegic man to move his hand again using his thoughts. Now, the government’s forward-thinking Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has awarded a contract to a Battelle-led team that pushes researchers into the realm of what was once considered science fiction.

Imagine this: A soldier puts on a helmet and uses his or her thoughts alone to control multiple unmanned vehicles or a bomb disposal robot. That’s the basis for this effort for DARPA’s Next-Generation Non-Surgical Neurotechnology (N3) program. The N3 program seeks development of high-performance, bi-directional brain-machine interfaces for able-bodied service members. Most of the current BCI research, including Battelle’s NeuroLife technology, focuses on helping people with disabilities who must undergo invasive implant procedures, including brain surgery, to enable a BCI that can restore lost function. For the next BCI leap, in which the technology can be used by healthy military service members, it’s imperative to find lower-risk and less-invasive options.

With regards to Elon Musk's business venture, Neuralink, I suspect more businesses other than just the military will get involved in BCIs. The following article reveals the role Facebook is starting to play with this technology.
Should Facebook still be working on a mind-reading device?
by TRISTAN GREENE — Mar 29, 2018 ... ng-device/

Would you wear a piece of hardware that could read your thoughts and send them to a computer? The answer to that question, in light of current events, may be different depending on who is making the product.

It sounds pretty cool, in theory: you slide on some sort of headset device, lean back in your favorite recliner, think about sending a Facebook message, and it’s sent. Simple. Seconds later, you hear a chime, and think about reading a reply – which promptly pops up on the nearest screen in your visual field.

That, allegedly, is the future Facebook’s mysterious Building 8 division is working toward. But, surely, there’s no way it’s still considering such an ambitious project now. Right? Not after the giant Cambridge Analytica data scandal.

Actually, turns out they are. A representative for Facebook told TNW, “I can tell you we’re still working on the project but don’t have anything new to share.”
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