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Yes, This is spot on! The old methods of stopping the 1% with pitchforks and torches will no longer work with the coming Singularity.
It is obvious only the very rich will be able to afford the Quantum Computers ushering in the Singularity. The following is a quote I found from PC World.
"D-Wave last year introduced the second-generation quantum computer called D-Wave Two which has a “list price north of $10 million,” according a research note from financial firm Sterne Agee on Wednesday. The note had a picture of a D-Wave Two with a list price of $15 million.
From PC World
D-Wave prepping quantum computers to outperform conventional servers
By Agam Shah
Mar 12, 2014
I have done a scientific study (Ha...just kidding) by asking my friends if any of them have the means to afford a Quantum Computer and the answer was a resounding "No." Actually, many did not even know what a quantum computer was let alone Kurzweil's concepts on the future of technology.
One has only to couple this with the Robert's Supreme court decision "Citizens United" where Corporations are now considered People to see where this is going. It is clear the very wealthy have been manipulating the court system for the past 30 years to feather their own beds. This is continuing at an unprecedented pace and the trajectory points to more and more control for the corporate elite.
With access to the fastest and most sophisticated computers in conjunction with changed laws in their favor, the rich will be able to hide in the internet with their Quantum Computers making the decisions for them. We will not be able to catch-up to them as they continue to upgrade and expand their technology nor will we be able to even locate them. Just try poking a pitchfork at your computer and see what happens.
Thereafter it was very much like the periodic table of elements, where once they found and figured out the first elements, so it was only a matter for time before they filled in the blanks with the new and more sophisticated elements. So the blanks were filled in until recently where we have the newest members of Nihonium (Nh), Moscovium (Mc), Tennessine (Ts), and Oganesson (Og). Who knew there would be so many.
Now we have movies like “The Matrix” and “Transcendence.” Undoubtedly more movies will follow that deal with Artificial Intelligence, Sentient Computers (shades of DATA in Star Trek), Man And Machine Hybrids, and Human and Animal (or plant) Hybrids due to DNA manipulation. The possibilities seem quite endless. Besides, Hollywood does need to make a profit by stretching our imagination.
So, just as the movies have progressed I guess the internet will progress to a point where it becomes unrecognizable to us today. Imagine living in the 1950s and watching one of these newer movies. People would have a difficult time understanding it but we today can relate to it as our boundaries get pushed further out beyond our normal limits. And just like the rich in Hollywood who craft our future, the rich will also craft our future on the internet to the point where we can no longer slay the beast with torches and pitchforks. Maybe if they were to focus on our pleasure centers of the brain first they could lure us onto the internet like they want to do with the merger of porn and virtual reality. Again this is expected to be a big money maker with the rich getting richer off our sexuality. One can only wonder what will happen to us all but it is almost guaranteed the rich will fare much better than the rest of us due to their control of the technology. It does not look like an attractive peachy keen future world and it gives me a case of the willies.
April 21, 2017
The part that really struck me was when Elon Musk says, " either a small group of people monopolize AI power, or the AI goes rogue, or something like that.It’s the year 2021. A quadriplegic patient has just had one million “neural lace” microparticles injected into her brain, the world’s first human with an internet communication system using a wireless implanted brain-mind interface — and empowering her as the first superhuman cyborg. …
No, this is not a science-fiction movie plot. It’s the actual first public step — just four years from now — in Tesla CEO Elon Musk’s business plan for his latest new venture, Neuralink. It’s now explained for the first time on Tim Urban’s WaitButWhy blog.
Dealing with the superintelligence existential risk
Such a system would allow for radically improved communication between people, Musk believes. But for Musk, the big concern is AI safety. “AI is obviously going to surpass human intelligence by a lot,” he says. “There’s some risk at that point that something bad happens, something that we can’t control, that humanity can’t control after that point — either a small group of people monopolize AI power, or the AI goes rogue, or something like that.”
This fits hand in glove with what Doctor A said in the first post above,
I would bet my bottom dollar he is referring to the super rich controlling AI and the singularity. However, he is worth about $14 billion and I would also bet he wants to be one of the small group of people monopolizing AI power especially since his new venture is Neuralink. But of course he did not focus on this side of the issue, only the technological side. Here is a link if you are interested in the technological side of the article, http://www.kurzweilai.net/elon-musk-wan ... telligent-It is obvious only the very rich will be able to afford the Quantum Computers ushering in the Singularity.
Overall I believe a small group of people monopolizing AI is as much a risk as AI going rogue.
From: KURZWEIL NEWS
In a neurotechnology future, human-rights laws will need to be revisited
April 28, 2017
________________________________________New forms of brainwashing include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to neuromodulate the brain regions responsible for social prejudice and political and religious beliefs, say researchers. (credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine)
New human rights laws to prepare for rapid current advances in neurotechnology that may put “freedom of mind” at risk have been proposed in the open access journal Life Sciences, Society and Policy.
Four new human rights laws could emerge in the near future to protect against exploitation and loss of privacy, the authors of the study suggest: The right to cognitive liberty, the right to mental privacy, the right to mental integrity, and the right to psychological continuity.
Advances in neural engineering, brain imaging, and neurotechnology put freedom of the mind at risk, says Marcello Ienca, lead author and PhD student at the Institute for Biomedical Ethics at the University of Basel. “Our proposed laws would give people the right to refuse coercive and invasive neurotechnology, protect the privacy of data collected by neurotechnology, and protect the physical and psychological aspects of the mind from damage by the misuse of neurotechnology.”
Sophisticated brain imaging and the development of brain-computer interfaces have moved away from a clinical setting into the consumer domain. There’s a risk that the technology could be misused and create unprecedented threats to personal freedom. For example:
• Uses in criminal court as a tool for assessing criminal responsibility or even the risk of re-offending.*
• Consumer companies using brain imaging for “neuromarketing” to understand consumer behavior and elicit desired responses from customers.
• “Brain decoders” that can turn a person’s brain imaging data into images, text or sound.**
• Hacking, allowing a third-party to eavesdrop on someone’s mind.***
International human rights laws currently make no specific mention of neuroscience. But as with the genetic revolution, the on-going neurorevolution will require consideration of human-rights laws and even the creation of new ones, the authors suggest.
* “A possibly game-changing use of neurotechnology in the legal field has been illustrated by Aharoni et al. (2013). In this study, researchers followed a group of 96 male prisoners at prison release. Using fMRI, prisoners’ brains were scanned during the performance of computer tasks in which they had to make quick decisions and inhibit impulsive reactions. The researchers followed the ex-convicts for 4 years to see how they behaved. The study results indicate that those individuals showing low activity in a brain region associated with decision-making and action (the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, ACC) are more likely to commit crimes again within 4 years of release (Aharoni et al. 2013). According to the study, the risk of recidivism is more than double in individuals showing low activity in that region of the brain than in individuals with high activity in that region. Their results suggest a “potential neurocognitive biomarker for persistent antisocial behavior”. In other words, brain scans can theoretically help determine whether certain convicted persons are at an increased risk of reoffending if released.” — Marcello Ienca and Roberto Andorno/Life Sciences, Society and Policy
** NASA and Jaguar are jointly developing a technology called Mind Sense, which will measure brainwaves to monitor the driver’s concentration in the car (Biondi and Skrypchuk 2017). If brain activity indicates poor concentration, then the steering wheel or pedals could vibrate to raise the driver’s awareness of the danger. This technology can contribute to reduce the number of accidents caused by drivers who are stressed or distracted. However, it also opens theoretically the possibility for third parties to use brain decoders to eavesdropping on people’s states of mind. — Marcello Ienca and Roberto Andorno/Life Sciences, Society and Policy
*** Criminally motivated actors could selectively erase memories from their victims’ brains to prevent being identified by them later on or simply to cause them harm. On the long term-scenario, they could be used by surveillance and security agencies with the purpose of selectively erasing dangerous, inconvenient from people’s brain as portrayed in the movie Men in Black with the so-called neuralyzer. — Marcello Ienca and Roberto Andorno/Life Sciences, Society and Policy
Abstract of Towards new human rights in the age of neuroscience and neurotechnology
Rapid advancements in human neuroscience and neurotechnology open unprecedented possibilities for accessing, collecting, sharing and manipulating information from the human brain. Such applications raise important challenges to human rights principles that need to be addressed to prevent unintended consequences. This paper assesses the implications of emerging neurotechnology applications in the context of the human rights framework and suggests that existing human rights may not be sufficient to respond to these emerging issues. After analysing the relationship between neuroscience and human rights, we identify four new rights that may become of great relevance in the coming decades: the right to cognitive liberty, the right to mental privacy, the right to mental integrity, and the right to psychological continuity.
• Marcello Ienca and Roberto Andorno. Towards new human rights in the age of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Life Sciences, Society and Policy201713:5 DOI: 10.1186/s40504-017-0050-1 (open access)
The three paragraphs in italics below are from past discussions on this site. They frame the conversation for a future where technology will be accelerating exponentially and potentially impacting the poor disproportionately regarding human rights abuse.
Unfortunately, because the creation of new laws is mostly based upon past actions, it almost always lags behind technological developments. As we draw closer to the Singularity, this time differential between past actions and the creation of new laws may very well decrease due to new technology in the legal arena itself. But overall, in absolute terms, it will take more time to develop these laws. This is because the new laws will need to be developed in some ratio to the exponentially accelerating new technology being developed. One can envision a legal system not capable of keeping up with the dizzying array of new social implications needing regulation and control. Of course there will be technological developments in the legal arena itself to aid in the processing of this technological onslaught. But one can see a scenario where even the new legal technology will be overwhelmed at some point. With an absolute increase in time needed to process the new technology, forms of human rights abuse will multiply against those individuals least capable of defending themselves.
Perhaps worse yet, the initial inability of the poor to merge with the new technology due to prohibitive costs will create a new form of inequality; it is an inequality of technological fitness. In contrast, those who can afford to be integrated and augmented with the new high priced technology will transcend a mere biological survival of the fittest to a new form of survival whereby the most technologically integrated individuals become the most fit. This is regardless of their genetic background. Moreover, because the new laws will favor those at the top of the economic pyramid, those at the base will be subject to more crushing human rights abuses than those at the top even if it is just periods of time. And granted, the unit price of the technology will eventually come down as it did with computers and cell phones, but it still makes opportunities ripe for abuse during these transition periods. Still, there may be unforeseen consequences not matching past behaviors that could also propagate abuse. Like the stock market, past behavior may no longer be predictive of future events. If we are really changing neuronal behaviors, will our old models of predicting future behavior hold up in the new reality?
This framework for the future includes the following paragraphs from the FRC site's previous discussions:
i]1) Yes, time is of the essence because waiting and inaction will distort our judgment of the Singularity’s appearance; it is an appearance happening much sooner and more sophisticated than our minds will be able to handle. Who among us has not lost track of time many times during the day. Time is a mental construct used to make sense of movement. It is a constant battle for our minds to continually track the movement of time. In those vulnerable periods of disorientation and confusion we are susceptible to time ambushing our sensibilities and rational thoughts. Like a predator stalking its prey, we will be had.
The key words, "Like a predator stalking its prey, we will be had." are quite appropriate here. Herbert Spencer in the late 1800s coined the phrase, "Survival of the fittest" after reading the works of Charles Darwin. Those humans who were more fit, that is to say, smarter, faster, and stronger, lived to pass their genetic material with these traits onto their offspring. This allowed them to prey upon the weaker members of our species for breeding rights, access to food, greater wealth, and a host of other functions. No matter what word you use, be it merged, enhanced, adapted, enmeshed, or augmented, those who can afford the the new technologies offered by the coming singularity will be seen has having super powers relative to those who cannot afford such luxuries. Preying upon the weaker members of our society with such super human powers will not be difficult.
Ray Kurzweil, a prominent voice heralding the singularity, envisions the following three fields will dominate during the technological revolution
Genetics, Nanotechnology, and Robotics
From: Ray Kurzweil Predicts Three Technologies Will Define Our Future
By Sveta McShane and Jason Dorrier
Written Apr 19, 2016
This is the last in a four-part series looking at the big ideas in Ray Kurzweil's book " The Singularity Is Near."
Of all the technologies riding the wave of exponential progress, Kurzweil identifies genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics as the three overlapping revolutions which will define our lives in the decades to come. In what ways are these technologies revolutionary?
The genetics revolution will allow us to reprogram our own biology.
The nanotechnology revolution will allow us to manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic scale.
The robotics revolution will allow us to create a greater than human non-biological intelligence.
Once again the most fit, now meaning those individuals who can afford the new technologies, are more likely to survive and one can bet their last dollar that some form of a predator to prey relationship will evolve between the unequal economic classes.
2) Let there be no doubt, the single most important aspect we are really battling for here is to control the future—our future—for the good of the whole. Will we control it or let the wealthy elite control our destiny? Make no mistake; what happens here will determine the outcome of humanity. Whoever controls the Singularity will control the future—will it be us or them?
Regarding the words, "Whoever controls the Singularity will control the future", the word control implies some form of active intent. One only has to look at the modern day corporate players of Apple, Google, Amazon, Microsoft, and other key players at the top of the corporate pyramid to see the level of active control they employ to promote their interests. Their intent is for world domination at least realistically in their their respective fields to control the future. They actively appropriate large amounts of capital and talent to ensure their future technological dominance. A quest to maximize profits and continue growth marches lockstep with a corporate fiduciary duty regarding such matters for their shareholders. This is an active intent to control the future.
3) A Trump presidency now tips the scale in the direction of a conservative ideological domination with the wealthy elites determined at all costs to control the technological Singularity. This is why your ideas and solutions are so important now, not later. In Singularity time, later is always too late. It is a now-or-never moment with the outcome of humanity hanging in the balance. Clearly, the FirstRateCrowd community business venture gives us a means to tip the scale back in our direction.
Trump and the Republican Congress will do anything to maintain their conservative agenda. They are determined at all costs to control this agenda which in turn largely supports their control of the technological Singularity. As an example of this determination, President Trump fired the FBI director, James Comey, as a clear affront to the rule of law. This transgression was and continues to be supported by the Congressional Republicans. It is an unabashed attempt to derail the FBI's investigation into the role of the Russians in the 2016 Presidential election and the possible role that President Trump and his administration may have played a role in this attempt. Such naked partisanship cannot hide their true intent; they will place party and conservative values over the security and good of the country at all costs. This determination and tenacity for their own agenda is expected to continue unabated until, if we are fortunate, a monumental change is made either legally or politically. But in the interim a great many individuals will suffer.
In summary, the future wealthy elite will use every means of control at their disposal and at any cost to maintain their predatory dominance over the poor. This includes the manipulation of future laws on their behalf with an obvious outcome being an increase of human rights abuse against the less fortunate.
First, my agreement stems from the inability to create laws in real time; the creation of new laws is built substantially upon past actions. For example, many of the world’s international laws regarding human rights today were derived from the Nuremberg trials in Germany in response to the actions of individuals who were accused of crimes during the Second World War. In the past, the time difference between the actions that took place and the judgments rendered with an eventual codification of these laws for future judicial usage occurred over many years. This time gap allowed abuses to continue. But now, as we sit on the precipice of the Singularity, our concepts of time will change as well as how an abuse gap can be perpetuated. With today's computerized legal technology, the time from discovery to judgment is diminishing. But in the near future, he amount of time from initial action to judicial reconciliation will yet decrease even more. But as Doctor A pointed out, there will be an absolute increase in the time needed for this reconciliation due to the overwhelming amount of technology being spewed out at an exponential accelerating rate. This is analogous in some way to a denial of service attack upon a computer system only this time it is an attack overwhelming the legal system. This time difference can and will most likely be exploited. Those who are in power at any point in time are more likely to have access to changing the laws in their favor. The adage, “to the victors go the spoils,” refers not only to the physical spoils but also to the conceptual such as the creation of new laws. Human rights abuse could easily manifest itself upon the weaker poor before there is a chance to enact new laws or even to change them.
Although it is unknown what the future Singularity will offer, my impression is the type of law technology needed to bring past actions to a codified set of laws in near real time would be created later rather than sooner with the possibility such a theoretical event could even be developed at all. Perhaps it would require new predictive techniques based upon the nascent field of quantum entangled physics. Regardless, most Physicists agree that time travel; either forward or backwards resembles a black box situation, with no realistic understanding of the workings involved to create such technology.
Still, there is the dicey possibility of setting laws into the future with blanket statements such as saying, “Robots are not allowed to harm humans.” But as time progresses closer towards the Singularity we would have to ask ourselves, “what is a robot and what is a human,” as the two concepts merge into one. This then becomes a risky and potentially dangerous proposition especially since the very concept of “harm” would itself most like change as well.
On another point, as noted in the Washington Times the day after the interview, the great thinker, linguist, philosopher, and activist, Noam Chomsky , recently told the BBC on May 10, 2017, that the Republican Party is the most dangerous organization “in human history.”
From such an esteemed source, this is monumental statement to say the least and presented itself in the following manner,
Finally, and to the section addressing regulations and the creation of laws supporting those regulations in favor of the wealthy, Noam Chomsky’s new book is discussed by Moyers and Company on May 11th 2017. In his new book: Noam Chomsky , “Requiem for the American Dream,” reveals the Running Of The Regulators, with the following excerpt,A wide-ranging interview with BBC’s “Newsnight” Wednesday between host Evan Davis and Mr. Chomsky soon turned to the Republican Party, which the author said is worse than the Islamic State terror group or those responsible for millions of deaths throughout the 20th century.
“Look, this is a very outrageous statement,” Mr. Chomsky said. “When I said it, I said, ‘Look, this is a very outrageous statement, but is it true? Is ISIS dedicated to trying to destroy the prospects for organized human existence?’ “
“It’s that bad?” the host countered.
“What does it mean to say not only are we not doing anything about climate change, but we’re trying to accelerate the race to the precipice?” Mr. Chomsky said. “It doesn’t matter whether they genuinely believe it or not if the consequence of that is, ‘let’s use more fossil fuels, let’s refuse to subsidize developing co untries, let’s eliminate regulations that reduce greenhouse gases.’ If that’s the consequence, that’s extremely dangerous.”
As Moyers and Company points out,If you look over the history of regulation — railroad regulation, financial regulation and so on — you find that, quite commonly, it’s either initiated by the economic concentrations that are being regulated, or it’s supported by them. And the reason is because they know that, sooner or later, they can take over the regulators and essentially run what they do. They can offer what amounts to bribes — offer them jobs or whatever it may be — it’s an advantage to the regulators to accommodate themselves to the will of the powerful. It happens naturally in many ways, and ends up with what’s called “regulatory capture.” The business being regulated is in fact running the regulators. The banks and bank lobbyists are actually writing the laws of financial regulation — it gets to that extreme. That’s been happening through history and, again, it’s a pretty natural tendency when you just look at the distribution of power.
Taken all together, the conservatives who are currently in power will have the opportunity to abuse the legal system in their favor now and even more so in the future. With shortened time frames between technological events, and with massive quantities of events, by the time we as an underclass figure out what is going on with individual and corporate actions, we will be severely injured by the elite. In the blink of an eye, and without technology capable of keeping up in the law profession relative to other arenas, a significant amount of damage can be done. When seen through Mr. Chomsky's view that the Republican Party is the most dangerous organization in human history, and combined with their staunch allies like those corporations creating their own regulations through a process of, “regulation capture,” there is little wonder as to why we need to be fearful and take action now, not later.[The book]is a primer in Chomsky’s analysis of the faults of the American political and economic system. Taking as its backbone the idea that “a significant part of the American Dream is class mobility: You’re born poor, you work hard, you get rich,” Chomsky systematically documents the many ways the system is rigged from top to bottom to ensure that corporations always win.
As journalist Chris Hedges notes in a blurb for the book, “Its power to write its own laws and regulations, Chomsky points out, has ultimately created a mafia economic system and a mafia political system that is exemplified in the rise to power of the demagogue Donald Trump.”
Yes, all of this will happen in what history will perceive as the blink of an eye with new technology racing towards this end. Here is some of the latest news on developing quantum processors for the future. I am not a quantum engineer or physicist in this area and I gave up my geek and nerd credentials long ago. Yet it is easy to see the writing on the wall. These newly developed materials will be used to produce much faster computers, exponentially faster than the ones we have now, which will then be used to produce even newer materials for even future exponentially faster computers.Taken all together, the conservatives who are currently in power will have the opportunity to abuse the legal system in their favor now and even more so in the future. With shortened time frames between technological events, and with massive quantities of events, by the time we as an underclass figure out what is going on with individual and corporate actions, we will be severely injured by the elite. In the blink of an eye, and without technology capable of keeping up in the law profession relative to other arenas, a significant amount of damage can be done.
And so the progression will continue beyond what my mind can possibly imagine. The time between technological events will diminish and the sheer numbers of events are outside the scope of my thinking. Usually when this is portrayed in a film we witness ever faster bits of light coming at us on the screen until it becomes just a blur of light and finally just a solid blast of white light. But what happens after this? We will not even be capable of imagining these speeds let alone be capable of managing these events legally.
Although the road to building quantum computers is paved with good intentions, I doubt the non-wealthy population will be the true beneficiary of these high-minded goals. As the last article presented here on clarifying complex chemical processes points out, the momentum is in the direction of faster computers with greater capacity regardless of the road bumps along the way.
Our capability to use pitchforks and torches to challenge these technologies with laws in our favor are quickly diminishing. We best wrest control of these new technologies from the hands of those who will want to manipulate and harm us while we still have the chance. Frankly we are the cavalry that needs to come to our own rescue.
Here are several articles regarding some of the more prominent points from this newer technology:
A New Breakthrough in Quantum Computing is Set to Transform Our World
by Patrick Caughill on July 28, 2017 https://futurism.com/a-new-breakthroug ... ur-world/
Quantum computers are arguably the next great evolutionary step in the development of computing tech. Their successful creation will be a paradigm shifting achievement—one that will alter the future of humanity and revolutionize operations across a broad spectrum of applications.
And in case you missed it, we just took a massive leap forward into this new realm.
Last week, in a stunning reveal at the 2017 International Conference on Quantum Technologies, held in Moscow, Russia, the co-founder of the Russian Quantum Center and head of the Lukin Group of the Quantum Optics Laboratory at Harvard University, Mikhail Lukin, announced that his team had successfully built a 51-qubit quantum computer.
Futurism was fortunate enough to be present at the conference in Moscow at the moment of this historic announcement and spoke with Professor Lukin about this achievement. Notably, his group was one of two teams that created the first ever time crystals back at the start of this year. Basically, the unique thing that happens with these time crystals is that they can be a stable state of matter. These states, in principle, can hold quantum coherence for a long time. So basically, it means you can have super-positions of states. That’s kind of the basic ingredient for all this quantum science and technology.
The capabilities of this technology are ultimately based on the number of qubits in the system. Each qubit that is added does not simply multiply the processing capability by a single bit, but exponentially increases it. For example, 4 classical bits can be in one of 24 positions, allowing for 16 possibilities but only one at a time. However, four qubits in superposition (being every possible combination of 0 and 1 at the same time) can be in all 16 states at once, and that number grows exponentially with every qubit added.This means that a 20-qubit system can store 1,000,000 values simultaneously.
Quantum Breakthrough: Physicists Have Once More Created Time Crystals
Written By Author Dom Galeon
January 27, 2017 https://futurism.com/quantum-breakthr ... -crystals/
Time crystals are strange. At the very least, they are a contradiction. A time crystal is quantum phenomenon that demonstrates movement while remaining in its ground, or lowest energy, state. Essentially a non-equilibrium form of matter, time crystals are lattices that repeat not in space but in time, breaking time-translation symmetry.
Now, two separate teams of researchers from the University of Maryland and Harvard University have reported their success at making time crystals
The University of Maryland’s time crystal research team was led by Chris Monroe. They manage to create a time crystal using a conga line of 10 ytterbium ions with interacting electron spins — yes, similar to how qubits work in quantum computers.
To maintain this movement, the team alternately hit the ytterbium ions with one laser to create a magnetic field and a second laser to flip the spins of the atoms partially. This sequence was repeated many times, keeping the ions out of equilibrium. Due to the interaction of the spins, they settled into a stable pattern of repeated spin flipping, which is essentially what defines a crystal.
Meanwhile, the Harvard team, led by Mikhail Lukin, developed their time crystal using densely packed nitrogen vacancy centers found in diamonds.
“Such similar results achieved in two wildly disparate systems underscore that time crystals are a broad new phase of matter, not simply a curiosity relegated to small or narrowly specific systems,” wrote Phil Richerme of Indiana University in an article accompanying the research published in Physical Review Letters. “Observation of the discrete time crystal … confirms that symmetry breaking can occur in essentially all natural realms, and clears the way to several new avenues of research.”
Clarifiying complex chemical processes with quantum computers
July 31, 2017 by Fabio Bergamin https://phys.org/news/2017-07-clarifiyi ... antum.html
Science and the IT industry have high hopes for quantum computing, but descriptions of possible applications tend to be vague. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now come up with a concrete example that demonstrates what quantum computers will actually be able to achieve in the future.
Specialists expect nothing less than a technological revolution from quantum computers, which they hope will soon allow them to solve problems that are currently too complex for classical supercomputers. Commonly discussed areas of application include data encryption and decryption, as well as special problems in the fields of physics, quantum chemistry and materials research.
A team of researchers led by ETH professors Markus Reiher and Matthias Troyer used simulations to demonstrate how a complex chemical reaction could be calculated with the help of a quantum computer. To accomplish this, the quantum computer must be of a "moderate size", says Matthias Troyer, who is Professor for Computational Physics at ETH Zurich and currently works for Microsoft. The mechanism of this reaction would be nearly impossible to assess with a classical supercomputer alone – especially if the results are to be sufficiently precise.
As demonstrated by the ETH researchers, hypothetical quantum computers with just 100 to 200 quantum bits (qubits) will potentially be able to compute complex subproblems within a few days. The results of these computations could then be used to determine the reaction mechanism of nitrogenase step by step.That quantum computers are capable of solving such challenging tasks at all is partially the result of the fact that they are structured differently to classical computers. Rather than requiring twice as many bits to assess each additional electron, quantum computers simply need one more qubit.
However, it remains to be seen when such "moderately large" quantum computers will be available. The currently existing experimental quantum computers use on the order of 20 rudimentary qubits respectively. It will take at least another five years, or more likely ten, before we have quantum computers with processors of more than 100 high quality qubits, estimates Reiher.
Researchers emphasise the fact that quantum computers cannot handle all tasks, so they will serve as a supplement to classical computers, rather than replacing them. "The future will be shaped by the interplay between classical computers and quantum computers," says Troyer.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. Law as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, and equality amongst themselves.
Laws are built with words.
I offer some very light humor regarding the Republican Administration and it's parallel to George Owell's New Speak in his prophetic book, "1984." I say very light humor given the dark undercurrents and seriousness of the matter. But first a quote to wet our appetite for putting the humor in perspective,
NEJM JournalOn another point, as noted in the Washington Times the day after the interview, the great thinker, linguist, philosopher, and activist, Noam Chomsky , recently told the BBC on May 10, 2017, that the Republican Party is the most dangerous organization “in human history.”
Paul E. Sax, MD
HIV and ID Observations
December 16th, 2017
CDC Receives List of Additional Forbidden Words and Phrases
NewspeakRight on the heels of prohibiting certain words or phrases in the Centers for Disease Control’s budget documents, the President’s Office of Financial Services has issued a second list.
Now, not only must CDC officials avoid using words such as “vulnerable”, “diversity”, “fetus”, “transgender”, and “evidence-based”, they also have to steer clear of several other words or phrases.
These include the following, which were issued along with the stated rationale and, at times, proposals for alternate or cautionary language:
“Scientific studies” — Please replace with “Dr. Oz says …”
“Data” — Delete — it is too difficult for us to know whether this word should be singular or plural.
“Susceptible” — We propose the following wording — “at risk due to weakness in character or upbringing or both.”
“Funding” — We prefer the term, “market forces”.
“Autochthonous transmission” — When cited, please include a note that it may cause blindness and/or hairy palms.
“Transparent” — Replace with “allows light to pass through so objects can be distinctly seen.”
Certain other words — including “balanced”, “cautionary”, “inclusive”, “thoughtful”, “measured”, and “kumquat” — are also on the forbidden list, without any explanation.
CDC officials have yet to respond to these requests publically, but several have noted off the record that this is the first time they have received comments from the President’s office hand-written in crayon.
Disclaimer: In case kumquat jokes aren’t your thing, this is satire.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the fictional language of the novel 1984.
Once they control the language they will control the laws, once they control the laws they will control the technology, and once they control the technology they will control us.To realise English Socialism (Ingsoc) in Oceania, the Party created the controlled language of Newspeak to ensure universal orthodoxy of ideology and politics among the populace.
Newspeak is the language of Oceania, a fictional totalitarian state ruled by the Party, who created the language to meet the ideological requirements of English Socialism (Ingsoc). In the world of Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), Newspeak is a controlled language, of restricted grammar and limited vocabulary, a linguistic design meant to limit the freedom of thought—personal identity, self-expression, free will—that ideologically threatens the regime of Big Brother and the Party, who thus criminalized such concepts as thoughtcrime, contradictions of Ingsoc orthodoxy.
In "The Principles of Newspeak", the appendix to the novel, George Orwell explains that Newspeak usage follows most of the English grammar, yet is a language characterised by a continually diminishing vocabulary; complete thoughts reduced to simple terms of simplistic meaning.
Talk about new technology driving the future, check this out from the Kurzweil news letter. Just the idea of this kind of mind speed is blowing out the cobwebs of my synaptic connections. Just the thought of trying to out think something in the future that is 200 million times faster than my brain is making me dizzy.
Superconducting ‘synapse’ could enable powerful future neuromorphic supercomputers
February 7, 2018
I already know what everyone is going to say; it has to be accomplished at near Absolute Zero. But it was not that long ago when the first research started looking at entangling photon pairs at Absolute Zero and today they are entangling macro size objects, like diamonds, at room temperature.
Fires 200 million times faster than human brain, uses one ten-thousandth as much energy
A superconducting “synapse” (switch) that “learns” like a biological system, operating like the human brain, has been built by researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Here is the articles text.
NIST’s artificial synapse, designed for neuromorphic computing, mimics the operation of switch between two neurons. One artificial synapse is located at the center of each X. This chip is 1 square centimeter in size. (The thick black vertical lines are electrical probes used for testing.) (credit: NIST)
A superconducting “synapse” that “learns” like a biological system, operating like the human brain, has been built by researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
The NIST switch, described in an open-access paper in Science Advances, provides a missing link for neuromorphic (brain-like) computers, according to the researchers. Such “non-von Neumann architecture” future computers could significantly speed up analysis and decision-making for applications such as self-driving cars and cancer diagnosis.
The research is supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) Cryogenic Computing Complexity Program, which was launched in 2014 with the goal of paving the way to “a new generation of superconducting supercomputer development beyond the exascale.”*
A synapse is a connection or switch between two neurons, controlling transmission of signals. (credit: NIST)
NIST’s artificial synapse is a metallic cylinder 10 micrometers in diameter — about 10 times larger than a biological synapse. It simulates a real synapse by processing incoming electrical spikes (pulsed current from a neuron) and customizing spiking output signals. The more firing between cells (or processors), the stronger the connection. That process enables both biological and artificial synapses to maintain old circuits and create new ones.
Dramatically faster, lower-energy-required, compared to human synapses
But the NIST synapse has two unique features that the researchers say are superior to human synapses and to other artificial synapses:
Operating at 100 GHz, it can fire at a rate that is much faster than the human brain — 1 billion times per second, compared to a brain cell’s rate of about 50 times per second.
It uses only about one ten-thousandth as much energy as a human synapse. The spiking energy is less than 1 attojoule** — roughly equivalent to the miniscule chemical energy bonding two atoms in a molecule — compared to the roughly 10 femtojoules (10,000 attojoules) per synaptic event in the human brain. Current neuromorphic platforms are orders of magnitude less efficient than the human brain. “We don’t know of any other artificial synapse that uses less energy,” NIST physicist Mike Schneider said.
Superconducting devices mimicking brain cells and transmission lines have been developed, but until now, efficient synapses — a crucial piece — have been missing. The new Josephson junction-based artificial synapse would be used in neuromorphic computers made of superconducting components (which can transmit electricity without resistance), so they would be more efficient than designs based on semiconductors or software. Data would be transmitted, processed, and stored in units of magnetic flux.
The brain is especially powerful for tasks like image recognition because it processes data both in sequence and simultaneously and it stores memories in synapses all over the system. A conventional computer processes data only in sequence and stores memory in a separate unit.
The new NIST artificial synapses combine small size, superfast spiking signals, and low energy needs, and could be stacked into dense 3D circuits for creating large systems. They could provide a unique route to a far more complex and energy-efficient neuromorphic system than has been demonstrated with other technologies, according to the researchers.
Nature News does raise some concerns about the research, quoting neuromorphic-technology experts: “Millions of synapses would be necessary before a system based on the technology could be used for complex computing; it remains to be seen whether it will be possible to scale it to this level. … The synapses can only operate at temperatures close to absolute zero, and need to be cooled with liquid helium. That this might make the chips impractical for use in small devices, although a large data centre might be able to maintain them. … We don’t yet understand enough about the key properties of the [biological] synapse to know how to use them effectively.”
Inside a superconducting synapse
The NIST synapse is a customized Josephson junction***, long used in NIST voltage standards. These junctions are a sandwich of superconducting materials with an insulator as a filling. When an electrical current through the junction exceeds a level called the critical current, voltage spikes are produced.
Illustration showing the basic operation of NIST’s artificial synapse, based on a Josephson junction. Very weak electrical current pulses are used to control the number of nanoclusters (green) pointing in the same direction. Shown here: a “magnetically disordered state” (left) vs. “magnetically ordered state” (right). (credit: NIST)
Each artificial synapse uses standard niobium electrodes but has a unique filling made of nanoscale clusters (“nanoclusters”) of manganese in a silicon matrix. The nanoclusters — about 20,000 per square micrometer — act like tiny bar magnets with “spins” that can be oriented either randomly or in a coordinated manner. The number of nanoclusters pointing in the same direction can be controlled, which affects the superconducting properties of the junction.
Diagram of circuit used in the simulation. The blue and red areas represent pre- and post-synapse neurons, respectively. The X symbol represents the Josephson junction. (credit: Michael L. Schneider et al./Science Advances)
The synapse rests in a superconducting state, except when it’s activated by incoming current and starts producing voltage spikes. Researchers apply current pulses in a magnetic field to boost the magnetic ordering — that is, the number of nanoclusters pointing in the same direction.
This magnetic effect progressively reduces the critical current level, making it easier to create a normal conductor and produce voltage spikes. The critical current is the lowest when all the nanoclusters are aligned. The process is also reversible: Pulses are applied without a magnetic field to reduce the magnetic ordering and raise the critical current. This design, in which different inputs alter the spin alignment and resulting output signals, is similar to how the brain operates.
Synapse behavior can also be tuned by changing how the device is made and its operating temperature. By making the nanoclusters smaller, researchers can reduce the pulse energy needed to raise or lower the magnetic order of the device. Raising the operating temperature slightly from minus 271.15 degrees C (minus 456.07 degrees F) to minus 269.15 degrees C (minus 452.47 degrees F), for example, results in more and higher voltage spikes.
* Future exascale supercomputers would run at 1018 exaflops (“flops” = floating point operations per second) or more. The current fastest supercomputer — the Sunway TaihuLight — operates at about 0.1 exaflops; zettascale computers, the next step beyond exascale, would run 10,000 times faster than that.
** An attojoule is 10-18 joule, a unit of energy, and is one-thousandth of a femtojoule.
*** The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of supercurrent — i.e., a current that flows indefinitely long without any voltage applied — across a device known as a Josephson junction, which consists of two superconductors coupled by a weak link. — Wikipedia
Abstract of Ultralow power artificial synapses using nanotextured magnetic Josephson junctions
Neuromorphic computing promises to markedly improve the efficiency of certain computational tasks, such as perception and decision-making. Although software and specialized hardware implementations of neural networks have made tremendous accomplishments, both implementations are still many orders of magnitude less energy efficient than the human brain. We demonstrate a new form of artificial synapse based on dynamically reconfigurable superconducting Josephson junctions with magnetic nanoclusters in the barrier. The spiking energy per pulse varies with the magnetic configuration, but in our demonstration devices, the spiking energy is always less than 1 aJ. This compares very favorably with the roughly 10 fJ per synaptic event in the human brain. Each artificial synapse is composed of a Si barrier containing Mn nanoclusters with superconducting Nb electrodes. The critical current of each synapse junction, which is analogous to the synaptic weight, can be tuned using input voltage spikes that change the spin alignment of Mn nanoclusters. We demonstrate synaptic weight training with electrical pulses as small as 3 aJ. Further, the Josephson plasma frequencies of the devices, which determine the dynamical time scales, all exceed 100 GHz. These new artificial synapses provide a significant step toward a neuromorphic platform that is faster, more energy-efficient, and thus can attain far greater complexity than has been demonstrated with other technologies.
M.L. Schneider, C.A. Donnelly, S.E. Russek, B. Baek, M.R. Pufall, P.F. Hopkins, P.D. Dresselhaus, S. P. Benz and W.H. Rippard. Ultra-low power artificial synapses using nano-textured magnetic Josephson junctions. Science Advances, 2018 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701329
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